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write_an_interface_to_your_perception_system [2013/02/12 18:41]
127.0.0.1 external edit
write_an_interface_to_your_perception_system [2014/06/05 13:38] (current)
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-====== Write an interface to your perception system ====== +#REDIRECT doc:writing_an_interface_to_your_perception_system
- +
-There are two main approaches how perception can be performed: Some perception algorithms continuously detect objects and output the results (in ROS terminology:​ publish the results on a topic), others perform recognition only on demand (in ROS: by calling a service). These two kinds of systems need to be interfaced in different ways: The former requires a topic listener that records the published object detections and adds them to the knowledge base, the latter can be interfaced by computables that trigger the perception procedure when a query involves the respective information. +
- +
-In this tutorial, we explain on two minimal examples how to write interfaces to these two kinds of perception systems. Currently, there is no '​standard'​ perception system in ROS, so some manual work is still needed to interface your favourite object recognition with KnowRob. We therefore created two '​dummy'​ perception systems that output simulated random object detections. It should however be very easy to adapt the examples to any real perception system. +
- +
-Before starting with the tutorial, it is important to first understand how [[object_pose_representation|object detections]] are represented in KnowRob. Further information on this topic can be found in Sections 3.2 and 6.1 in http://​nbn-resolving.de/​urn/​resolver.pl?​urn:​nbn:​de:​bvb:​91-diss-20111125-1079930-1-7. +
- +
-====== Setting up the perception tutorial ====== +
- +
-The knowrob_perception tutorial is part of the knowrob_tutorials repository. You need to check it out into your ROS workspace (i.e. into a directory that is part of your ROS_PACKAGE_PATH). +
-https://​github.com/​knowrob/​knowrob_tutorials.git +
-<​code>​ +
-git clone https://​github.com:​knowrob/​knowrob_tutorials.git +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-After the checkout, you should be able to ''​roscd''​ into the knowrob_perception directory and to ''​rosmake''​ the package. If the '​roscd'​ command does not change your working directory to the knowrob_perception directory, please check your ROS configuration (e.g. make sure knowrob_perception is part of the ROS_PACKAGE_PATH),​ because otherwise the following steps will fail as well. Both commands should work without any error messages. +
- +
-<​code>​ +
-roscd knowrob_perception +
-rosmake +
-</​code>​ +
-====== Interfacing topic-based perception systems ====== +
- +
-===== Publisher ===== +
- +
-The file src/​edu/​tum/​cs/​ias/​knowrob/​tutorial/​DummyPublisher.java implements a simple dummy publisher that simulates a perception system that regularly detects objects and publishes these detections on the /​dummy_object_detections topic once a second. Try to understand how these detections are generated by the generateDummyObjectDetection() method. You can start the publisher using +
-<​code>​ +
-rosrun knowrob_perception_tutorial dummy_publisher +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-Once the publisher is running, you can have a look at the generated object poses by calling the following command from a different terminal. +
-<​code>​ +
-rostopic echo /​dummy_object_detections +
-</​code>​ +
-It should output messages of the following form: +
-<​code>​ +
-type: DinnerFork +
-pose:  +
-  header:  +
-    seq: 0 +
-    stamp:  +
-      secs: 1357547989 +
-      nsecs: 196672575 +
-    frame_id: map +
-  pose:  +
-    position:  +
-      x: 0.300724629488 +
-      y: 2.96134330258 +
-      z: 1.56672560148 +
-    orientation:​  +
-      x: 0.0 +
-      y: 0.0 +
-      z: 0.0 +
-      w: 1.0 +
-</​code>​ +
-===== Subscriber ===== +
- +
-The counterpart on the client side that consumes the object detections is implemented in the file ''​src/​edu/​tum/​cs/​ias/​knowrob/​tutorial/​DummySubscriber.java''​. The subscriber has been realized using two threads: The ''​listenToObjDetections''​ thread subscribes to the topic and puts the incoming messages into the ''​callback''​ queue. The ''​updateKnowRobObjDetections''​ thread processes all object detections in this queue and creates the corresponding representations in KnowRob. The rationale behind this setup is to keep the subscriber thread as light-weight as possible to avoid problems of missing messages when the program is occupied updating the knowledge base. While the creation of an object detection in KnowRob is quite fast, this structure is crucial if the processing becomes more complex. +
- +
-The following code snippet is the main part of the ''​updateKnowRobObjDetections''​ thread. It pops the an ''​ObjectDetection''​ message from the ''​callback''​ queue, converts the pose quaternion into a 4x4 pose matrix and calls the ''​create_object_perception''​ predicate. +
- +
-<​code>​ +
-  while (n.isValid()) { +
- +
-    obj = callback.pop();​ +
- +
-    Matrix4d p = quaternionToMatrix(obj.pose.pose); ​         +
-    String q = "​create_object_perception("​ + +
-          "'​http://​ias.cs.tum.edu/​kb/​knowrob.owl#"​+obj.type+"',​ ["  +
-          + p.m00 + ","​+ p.m01 + ","​+ p.m02 + ","​+ p.m03 + ","​ +
-          + p.m10 + ","​+ p.m11 + ","​+ p.m12 + ","​+ p.m13 + ","​ +
-          + p.m20 + ","​+ p.m21 + ","​+ p.m22 + ","​+ p.m23 + ","​ +
-          + p.m30 + ","​+ p.m31 + ","​+ p.m32 + ","​+ p.m33 + +
-          "], ['​DummyObjectDetection'​],​ ObjInst)";​ +
- +
-    PrologInterface.executeQuery(q);​ +
-    n.spinOnce();​ +
-  } +
-</​code>​ +
- +
- +
-This predicate, defined in the knowrob_perception package, is defined as below. It creates a new object instance for the given object type (''​rdf_instance_from_class''​),​ creates an instance describing the perception event using the ''​PerceptionTypes''​ given as argument, links the object instance to this perception event, and sets the pose at which the object was detected. This convenience predicate assumes that the detected objects are always novel. By calling the different predicates individually,​ one can also add perception events to existing objects instances if the identity of the object instance is known. +
- +
-<​code>​ +
-create_object_perception(ObjClass,​ ObjPose, PerceptionTypes,​ ObjInst) :- +
-    rdf_instance_from_class(ObjClass,​ ObjInst), +
-    create_perception_instance(PerceptionTypes,​ Perception),​ +
-    set_object_perception(ObjInst,​ Perception),​ +
-    set_perception_pose(Perception,​ ObjPose). +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-===== KnowRob integration ===== +
- +
-Whenever the subscriber is started, it creates the KnowRob-internal representations for all object detections that are received via the topic. It can be run from Prolog via the [[http://​www.swi-prolog.org/​packages/​jpl/​|JPL Java-Prolog interface]] as defined in prolog/​perception_tutorial.pl:​ +
- +
-<​code>​ +
-obj_detections_listener(Listener) :- +
-  jpl_new('​edu.tum.cs.ias.knowrob.tutorial.DummySubscriber',​ ['​knowrob_tutorial_listener'​],​ Listener),​ +
-  jpl_call(Listener,​ '​startObjDetectionsListener',​ [], _). +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-If the dummy publisher is running, the following sequence of commands starts the topic listener, queries for object instances and their poses. +
- +
-<​code>​ +
-?- obj_detections_listener(L). +
-L = @'​J#​00000000000173056232'​. +
-Attaching 0x8afd1010 +
- +
-<wait for a few seconds...>​ +
- +
-?- owl_individual_of(A,​ knowrob:'​HumanScaleObject'​). +
-A = '​http://​ias.cs.tum.edu/​kb/​knowrob.owl#​Cup_vUXiHMJy'​ ; +
-A = '​http://​ias.cs.tum.edu/​kb/​knowrob.owl#​Cup_bneXbLGX'​ ; +
-A = '​http://​ias.cs.tum.edu/​kb/​knowrob.owl#​DinnerFork_TaVWzXre'​ +
- +
-?- current_object_pose('​http://​ias.cs.tum.edu/​kb/​knowrob.owl#​DinnerFork_TaVWzXre',​ P). +
-P = [1.0,​0.0,​0.0,​2.9473,​0.0,​1.0,​0.0,​2.6113,​0.0,​0.0,​1.0,​0.2590,​0.0,​0.0,​0.0,​1.0]. +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-====== Interfacing service-based perception systems ====== +
- +
-===== Perception service ===== +
- +
-The dummy perception service is very similar to the dummy publisher. Whenever a request for an object detection is received, it responds with a simulated detection of a random object type at a random pose. In real scenarios, the request will probably not be empty, but specify properties of the perception method to be used. The code of the dummy service can be found in the file src/​edu/​tum/​cs/​ias/​knowrob/​tutorial/​DummyService.java. It can be started with the following command: +
-<​code>​ +
-rosrun knowrob_perception_tutorial dummy_service +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-===== Service client ===== +
- +
-The ''​callObjDetectionService()''​ method in the service client simply calls the dummy ROS service and returns the ''​ObjectDetection''​ message returned by the service call. The code can be found in the file src/​edu/​tum/​cs/​ias/​knowrob/​tutorial/​DummyClient.java. +
- +
- +
- +
-===== KnowRob integration ===== +
- +
-While the service client is much simpler than the topic listener, the integration with KnowRob is a bit more complex. The reason is that the service call needs to be actively triggered, while the topic listener just runs in the background in a separate thread. This means that the inference needs to be aware of the possibility of acquiring information about object detections by calling this service. Such functionality can be realized using [[define_computables|computables]] that describe for an OWL class or property how individuals of this class or values of this property can be computed. To better understand the following steps, it is recommended to have completed the [[define_computables|tutorial on defining computables]].  +
- +
-In a first step, we need to implement a Prolog predicate that performs the service call, processes the returned information,​ adds it to the knowledge base, and returns the identifiers of the detected object instances. This predicate is implemented in prolog/​perception_tutorial.pl. In contrast to topic-based example above, which performed most processing in Java, this example shows how more of the processing can be done in Prolog: +
- +
-<​code>​ +
-comp_object_detection(ObjInst,​ _ObjClass) :- +
- +
-  % Call the DetectObject service for retrieving a new object detection. +
-  % The method returns a reference to the Java ObjectDetection message object +
-  jpl_call('​edu.tum.cs.ias.knowrob.tutorial.DummyClient',​ '​callObjDetectionService',​ [], ObjectDetection),​ +
- +
- +
-  % Read information from the ObjectDetection object +
- +
-  % Read type -> simple string; combine with KnowRob namespace +
-  jpl_get(ObjectDetection,​ '​type',​ T), +
-  atom_concat('​http://​ias.cs.tum.edu/​kb/​knowrob.owl#',​ T, Type), +
- +
- +
-  % Read pose -> convert from quaternion to pose list +
-  jpl_get(ObjectDetection,​ '​pose',​ PoseStamped),​ +
-  jpl_get(PoseStamped,​ '​pose',​ PoseQuat),​ +
- +
-  jpl_call('​edu.tum.cs.ias.knowrob.tutorial.DummyClient',​ '​quaternionToMatrix',​ [PoseQuat], PoseMatrix),​ +
-  knowrob_coordinates:​matrix4d_to_list(PoseMatrix,​PoseList),​ +
- +
- +
-  % Create the object representations in the knowledge base +
-  % The third argument is the type of object perception describing  +
-  % the method how the object has been detected +
-  create_object_perception(Type,​ PoseList, ['​DummyObjectDetection'​],​ ObjInst). +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-The predicate first calls the static ''​callObjDetectionService''​ method in the ''​DummyClient''​ class and receives an ''​ObjectDetection''​ object as result. It then reads its member variables (type, pose) and converts them from a quaternion into a pose matrix and into a Prolog list as row-based matrix representation. In the end, it calls the same ''​create_object_perception''​ predicate that was also used in the previous example. +
- +
-This predicate can be used to manually query the perception service from Prolog (assuming the perception service is running in another terminal):​ +
-<​code>​ +
-rosrun rosprolog rosprolog knowrob_perception_tutorial +
-?- comp_object_detection(Obj,​ _). +
-Obj = '​http://​ias.cs.tum.edu/​kb/​knowrob.owl#​Cup_vUXiHMJy'​. +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-Such a manual query requires that the user is aware of the existence of this service. It also requires adaptation of the query whenever the context changes, e.g. when different or multiple recognition systems are used. We can avoid these problems by wrapping the predicate into a computable; with this definition, the predicate will automatically be called whenever the user asks for an object pose and when the service interface is available. The following OWL code defines a computable Prolog class for the example predicate:​ +
- +
-<​code>​ +
-<​computable:​PrologClass rdf:​about="#​computeObjectDetections">​ +
-    <​computable:​command rdf:​datatype="&​xsd;​string">​comp_object_detection</​computable:​command>​ +
-    <​computable:​cache rdf:​datatype="&​xsd;​string">​cache</​computable:​cache>​ +
-    <​computable:​visible rdf:​datatype="&​xsd;​string">​unvisible</​computable:​visible>​ +
-    <​computable:​target rdf:​resource="&​knowrob;​HumanScaleObject"/>​ +
-</​computable:​PrologClass> ​  +
-</​code>​ +
- +
-Instead of calling the service directly, we can now query for object poses and obtain -- in addition to already known poses from e.g. a semantic map -- the poses generated by our service: +
-<​code>​ +
-?- rdfs_instance_of(A,​ knowrob:'​HumanScaleObject'​). +
-A = '​http://​ias.cs.tum.edu/​kb/​knowrob.owl#TableKnife_vUXiHMJy'​. +
-</​code>​ +
- +
- +
- +
-====== Other kinds of perception systems ====== +
- +
-In this tutorial, we have concentrated on object recognition as a special case of perception. There are of course other perception tasks like the identification and pose estimation of humans, recognition and interpretation of spoken commands, etc. Most of these systems can however be interfaced in a very similar wayIf they produce information continuously and asynchronously,​ a topic-based interface can be used. If they compute information on demand, the computable-based interface can be adapted. +
- +
- +
- +
-====== Adapting the examples to your system ====== +
- +
-To keep the examples as simple and self-contained as possible, we have defined our own dummy components and messages. Your perception system will probably use slightly different messages and may provide more or less information. In this case, you will need to adapt the service client or topic listener to correctly extract information from your messages. After creating the object instance with ''​create_object_perception'',​ you can use ''​rdf_assert''​ to add further properties to the object (e.g. color, weight, etc). +
- +
- +
- +
- +